Featured Post

Homeland Security: The Sworn Duty of Public Officials

Homeland Security: The Sworn Duty of Public Officials     The United States has a unique position amongst the countries of the world;...

Thursday, May 21, 2015

Overview: Texas 10 Most Wanted/Texas Stash House Rewards Programs: Part 1- Texas Most Wanted

The overview was presented by Adam Unnasch with DPS.  The two programs are run from DPS CID and the Office of the Governor (OOG).  The program concept evolved from the Crime Stopper idea.  The first Crime Stoppers was run by the Albuquerque PD after a fatal shooting in 1976.  The first Crime Stoppers in Texas was in El Paso in 1978. Governor Richards established the Texas Most Wanted Fugitive Team in 1993 by executive order (AWR 93-5, available here ).  Less than 24 hours after the first Texas Top 10 was publicized, a tip was received that led to the arrest of the first fugitive brought to justice under the program.

In 2012, the program had a record year and paid out over $93,000.  In 2103 the program had a record year for fugitives apprehended, at 32.  There have been 137 captures since 2010.

There are two lists under the Top Ten model:
Texas 10 Most Wanted
Texas 10 Most Wanted Sex Offenders

To be considered for inclusion as one of Texas' Top Ten Most Wanted, a fugitive must have:
Multiple warrants open
A parole violation
A history of violent crimes

Other possible factors:
Relationship with a cartel
Relationship with a prevalent gang
Contributes to border violence
A link to a high profile case
To be considered for inclusion as one of Texas' Top Ten Most Wanted Sex Offenders, a fugitive must have:
An active warrant
A failure to register as a sex offender

Rewards for tips in the Texas 10 Most Wanted list run from $5,000 to $50,000.  Rewards for the Texas 10 Most Wanted ex Offenders  run from $2,000 to $5,000.  The rewards are determined by a point system, which includes factors such as gang membership, career criminal designation, commission of violent crimes, number of parole warrants, and other warrants.

Anonymity is preserved in all methods of providing tips  though the following process:  the tipster gets a "tip number"when contacting the hotline.  If an arrest results from the tip associated with that tip number, the OOG (Office Of the Governor) will authorize a payment to that "tip number".  The tipster will have to contact the hotline again and confirm their "tip number" has been authorized for payment.  The tipster will then arrange for a payment to be made at a bank at a specific time.  The tipster MUST HAVE their "tip number" to be paid ( See the DPS link How a tipster gets paid ). The reward is tax exempt.  By law, the state cannot be compelled to provide tipster information in court.

There are five methods of providing tips:
1. By phone at 1-800-252-8477(TIPS)
2. By texting 274637(CRIMES)
3. By going to the DPS web site and opening up the fugitive's individual poster and clicking on the “Submit a Tip Online” link.
5. Through the DPS mobile app, available here


Texas 2015 Emergency Management Conference

Last week I attended the Texas 2015 Emergency Management Conference, set up by Texas DPS/ TDEM  I was only able to attend 3 seminars, but all three were interesting enough to share.

Overview: Texas 10 Most Wanted/Texas Stash House Rewards Programs
Geographic Information Systems Mapping: Response, Availability, & Training
Campus Chaos 2014 - What were we thinking?

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

Criminal Justice Leadership: A rose by another name may be a different flower

MCJ6405: Organizational Leadership

W6: Assignment 2
Criminal Justice Leadership:
A rose by another name may be a different flower

Problem Statement

Organizational perspectives on leadership from fields outside of criminal justice are not relevant to criminal-justice practitioners because criminal-justice leaders face scenarios that are not comparable with scenarios that occur in other fields.
Do you think that the job of a police chief is comparable with the job of a business executive? Why? Compare both jobs in terms of accountability, performance parameters, organizational objectives, social responsibilities, educational qualifications, work environment, and compensation structure.

The job of a police chief is comparable to a business leader's job. There are signifigant differences, but similarities as well. Both are accountable to stakeholders; board members represent the interests of stock owners for the businessman, while politicians represent the interests of the public relating to the police chief. Their performances may be rate differently; “Business organizations self-correct when profits decline. Government agencies, if they self-regulate, do not have a market barometer to indicate when they have problems” (Perry, 2010, p. 50). The organizational objectives are completely different; businesses seek profit while criminal justice agencies perform a number of roles for society such as law enforcement and rehabilitation of criminals. As such, their social responsibilities are different. While businesses leaders must legally act within the law, police chiefs must ethcially comply; “It is the positive duty of criminal justice agency heads to ensure that ethical practice is attended to“ (Wright, 1999, para. 6). The educational standards for police managers is comparable to that of businesses leaders, and both often originate from the middle class. The work environment is an area in which they substantially differ; “Other occupational groups have their own cultures, but among police, they, as a
group, demonstrate an insular and often impenetrable solidarity” (Perry, 2010, p. 30). Finally, the job security is very different as well. Business leaders accounatble for profits may be let go at any sign of failure, while police chiefs are often protected by civil service; “Civil service, whether it is state or local, provides a measure of job security against political changes” (Perry, 2010, p.3).

What could be the similarities and differences in the leadership styles of a business executive and a police chief? Which leadership concepts and strategies that you studied in this course can be applied to both of these positions? Explain.

Effective leaders in both fields will choose the best method of leadership at any given time; “That is the way one leads a group of people will depend on whom one is working with, and what one is doing. A person will lead a group making sandwiches differently than one will lead a group making nuclear bombs. According to this theory, the
effectiveness of the style depends on the specific situation” (Morreale, n.d., p.26). Due to modern research into leadership theory, police have been able to tap into this knowledge to develop their approaches;
Police leaders have looked to theories utilized by the business world and other fields of endeavor in an effort to improve management” (Perry, 2010, p. 45). However, there are considerations which may limit the abilitity of police leaders in certain aspects of leadership. “Most governmental elements are so bureaucratic that it is difficult to allow or seek creativity and innovation” (Morreale, n.d., p. 8). This bureaucratic consideration also means that “The inflexibility faced by appointing authorities when using the civil service system stymies their ability to select the best leaders for their communities” (Perry, 2010, p. 13).

Do police chiefs have to perform the same management tasks as business executives? If yes, explain these tasks. If no, then explain why you think so.

For the most part, business and police leaders conduct the same activities; budget planning, recruitment and hiring, infrastructure maintenance, and performance reviews. Police leaders, working in a different cultural environment, must sometimes carry these tasks out in different ways than do business leaders, Perry summarizes Reuss-Ianni's concept of the 'street‘ cop and
the 'management‘ cop, and their tendency to “look at policing in dissimilar ways...This chasm between the 'street‘ cops and the 'management‘ cops can be relieved with supportive management but not entirely eradicated because a police department is a quasi-military institution and the demarcation in rank is a reality” (2010, pp. 40,41). In addition, the budgeting cycles of police and business leaders differs; “National and international economic conditions have strained local
police budgets” (Fischer, 2014, p.1).

Do the subordinatespolice officers, male business executives, and women executivesthat the police chief and the business executive oversee, have different leadership requirements? Why? What are some of the similarities in the subordinates of both the leaders?

One aspect of police culture that has a positive difference for police leaders over business leaders in influencing subordinates is the para-military rank structure; Cowper states that police departments tend to be organized with rank structures and many law enforcement directors desire respect for the chain of command (2000, p. 229). This also affects the level of organizational commitment; “The literature suggest that para-military organizations, such as the police, will have high
levels of organizational commitment because they exhibit organizational cultures thathave strong norms for obligation, internalization and identification, that are conditions that facilitate organizational commitment”(Dick, 2011, p. 560)

Evaluate the concept of ethical leadership in law enforcement and business on the following criteria:

  • Integrity of leader behavior
  • Risk taking in decisions and actions
  • Response to criticism and dissent by followers
  • Development of skills and self-confidence in followers

Support your responses with one example each from law enforcement and business.

While much less vital to businesses leadership, ethcial leadership has an impact on both areas of operation; “Integrity is vital to the functioning of private as well as public organizations. If the integrity of an employee or manager is in question, it may have paralyzing consequences for them as well as the organization” (Huberts, Kaptein, & Lasthuizen, 2007, p. 588). We can return to Wrights statement, “it is the positive duty of criminal justice agency heads to ensure that ethical practice is attended to“ and reference the failure of ethical leadership in both business and law enforcement; Enron is such an example in the business world, while the Rampart CRASH unit an example of failure in the police field. Risk in leadership varys by situation; in business, the leader of a startup must take signifiganlty greater risks than an established blue-chip CEO must. And while “no one can succeed at public management without taking
risks” (Morreale, n.d., p. 5), criminal justice leaders that take inappropriate risks open their agencies up to lawsuits. Effective leaders also accept criticism from their subordinates; Chief Vollmer used to hold Friday Crab Club meetings to get feedback from his officers. Herbert Kelleher of Southwest Airlines simarly has had a direct relation with his employees. Effective leadership also requires that employees be motivated through the self-confidence of competence, here we look to Vollmer and Kelleher for examples of leaders that understood the need for employee skills development.

Cowper, T. J. (2000). The myth of the “military model” of leadership in law enforcement. Police Quarterly, 3(3), 228–246. Retrieved August 10, 2014 from http://pqx.sagepub.com/content/3/3/228.short
Dick, G. P. m. (2011). The Influence of Managerial and Job Variables on Organizational Commitment in the Police. Public Administration, 89(2), 557–576. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9299.2010.01874.x

Fischer, C. (2014). Legitimacy and Procedural Justice:  A New Element of Police Leadership. Police Executive Research Forum. Retrieved August 20, 2014 from http://www.policeforum.org/assets/docs/Free_Online_Documents/Leadership/legitimacy%20and%20procedural%20justice%20-%20a%20new%20element%20of%20police%20leadership.pdf

Huberts, L. W. J. C. (Leo), Kaptein, M. (Muel), & Lasthuizen, K. (Karin). (2007). A study of the impact of three leadership styles on integrity violations committed by police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 30(4), 587–607. doi:10.1108/13639510710833884

Morreale, S. (n.d.). Law enforcement leadership:Literature and practice. New England Community-Police Partnership. Retrieved August 17, 2014 from http://www.fstopltd.com/Police_Leadership.pdf

Perry, A. E. (2010). The evolution of police organizations and leadership in the United States: potential political and social implications. Retrieved August 10, 2014 from http://iris.lib.neu.edu/law_pol_soc_diss/20/

Wright, K. (1999). Leadership Is the Key to Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies. - Free Online Library. Criminal Justice Ethics. Retrieved August 15, 2014 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Leadership+Is+the+Key+to+Ethical+Practice+in+Criminal+Justice...-a060060343

Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Minority Roles in CJ Management

  • According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics bulletin, "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005," nearly six in ten persons in local jails were racial or ethnic minorities. In the context of this information, do you think the field of criminal justice creates unique challenges for minorities who seek leadership positions? Why? Explain with reference to how leaders from ethnic minorities might manage diversity.
I don't believe that the criminal justice field is different from society in general in the leadership challenges that minorities may face. I have never come up with a consistent estimate of how pervasive racism is, or isn't, in society. Some people are racist, some aren't, and even racists can have weird applications of racism. I knew a guy that constantly used racial terms to denigrate black people, yet he had black friends, some of whom even put up with the language he used. I can't understand the behavior of anyone in that set up. But I don't believe that racially disproportionate crime rates have an effect on minority leadership. The cities in which arrest rates for minorities are high often have minority chiefs of police, for example. Minority leaders should handle diversity in the same fashion that CJ organizations should handle personnel issues; by selecting the best qualified candidates for any position; however, minority leaders should seek to groom minorities within their organizations for leadership by mentoring them. While this sounds exclusionary, it should be understood that all members of a CJ organization ( at least of the line component) should be given training and experience in leadership attributes. The second thing that minority leaders should do is raise the quality in the minority pool by opposing political policies that sabotage education in minority communities by lowering standards, and by advocating cultural shifts where cultural norms interfere with educational standards.
  • Minorities in leadership roles are essential to the perceptions of fairness of many who are being processed through the system. In this context, to what extent do you think programs such as affirmative action are required in criminal justice? Why? What can be done to ensure that there are no instances of reverse discrimination (in which the rights of the majority are sacrificed)?
Affirmative action policies exacerbate an issue that the CJ field suffers from overall, the lack of qualified applicants. Lott argues that lowered hiring standards reduced the quality of both minority and non minority applicants (2000, p. 239). Ethical leaders must instead make the proper efforts to recruit qualified officers of both statuses (and to groom them for leadership, as well). Affirmative action policies also prevent qualified applicants from selection; I once applied at the Austin Police Department during a recruitment drive and was told there were no openings, so I sent my ½ Black, ½ Thai girlfriend down...she was given the application papers. The way to prevent reverse discrimination is exactly the same way to prevent discrimination; set fair standards and uphold the best candidates. Leaders must ensure that qualified applicants are not being set aside for less qualified applicants, whether that attempt to do so be based on racism or on quotas.
  • Do you think women leaders in criminal justice, such as former San Francisco Police Chief Heather J. Fong, face greater challenges than those in other fields because criminal justice has traditionally been a male-dominated field where many still hold stereotypes of women working in criminal justice? Why? Assess whether or not the field of criminal justice will benefit from the presence of women.
I have a gut feeling that I don't like the idea of female officers working alone. While police work ultimately can come down to is the use of force across a wide range of force options in which a physical struggle can cost an officer his or her life; women are less suited biologically for pyhsical combat. Having said that, and having never worked in the LE field myself, I thought about x and ys' comments regarding female officers.. Thinking a little deeper, I realize that I don't like the idea of ANY officer working alone I hate the idea of single officer car patrols; cops need backup on hand at all times. This ties into x's point re: brotherhood/sisterhood and backing fellow officers up. In addition, use of force situations are simply one situation that police may encounter. As discussed above, there are situations that female officers do better in than do male officers. Part of leadership is recognizing the best option to use in any situation.
  • Is it more important for criminal-justice leaders to be ethical than leaders in business because monetary ambition and a cutthroat mentality can have benefits in business while they can only lead to corruption in criminal justice? Explain.
It is much more important for a criminal justice leader to be ethical then it is for a business leader. While an unethical business leader can make decisions that can cost an individual his life or some money, a CJ leader can do so as well. To make matters worse, a CJ leader has the power of the State behind him. Past the misfortunes an unethical business leader can inflict upon an individual, a CJ leader can inflict loss of freedom and rights.
Making the issue worse, the CJ leaders duty is to the public; in this the business leader does not compare, and does not betray an oath. This is an idea that goes past the issue of personal corruption. I attended a seminar today ( presented by the Texas Public Policy Foundation) regarding the use of civil asset forfeiture. This occurs when a citizen's property is seized and claimed by the State in cases where there is no conviction, or even indictment, of the citizen. This is causing a problem wherein agencies are focusing on attaining forfeitures instead of their primary mission; they are “driven” to so so because CJ agencies are underfunded. This leads to situations in which CJ officials are making unethical decisions based on the needs of the system; they are not “bad players” as much as it is a “bad game”.
The ethics of CJ leaders is far more important than the ethics of business leaders...besides, ethical CJ leaders can also arrest unethical business leaders!

Civil asset forfeiture reform: Fighting contraband, upholding civil liberties. (2014, December 8). Symposium conducted by The Texas Public Policy Foundation. Austin, Texas

Lott Jr., J. R. (2000). Does a Helping Hand Put Others at Risk?: Affirmative Action, Police Departments, and Crime. Economic Inquiry, 38(2), 239. Retrieved August 10, 2014 from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=3036446&site=ehost-live&scope=site


We can talk about the "strategies" that leaders employ to influence others, but what it comes down to is having the personal courage to speak up; to be able to say "Your'e wrong".


I had considered doing my thesis on the question of at what point an officer's oath to the community overrides his subordination to political leaders.  How often do we see policemen arrest political leaders for nonfeasance or misfeasance issues, for example?  Gov. Nixon failed to deploy the National Guard against rioters that burned down several business;  was he subject to arrest for such offenses?


I'm surprised that any of the New Left terrorists are still in jail...most of them have moved on to academia (Ayers, Dohrn, Boudin, Davis etc etc), but then again, most of them were from wealthy families to begin with.

And it is is true that politics interferes with every aspect of government (and through government into the daily lives of the normal person).  That's part of human nature, and played a part in society even when "government" meant he whom swung the hardest club. The point to consider is when that interference becomes too much for the society to absorb and continue to thrive.

Which is where leadership comes into play; Rome didn't fall on the day the Visigoths first sacked the city (or the subsequent drive-bys).  Rome fell when the equestrians and senators abdicated their leadership roles and military duties  to the Romanized, but not Roman, tribes; they did this many years prior to the first "invasion".  x makes a good point above, a leader has to be able to say "YOU ARE WRONG" when necessary.


Should a non-qualified person be hired to fulfill diversity demands?  Would it be possible to hire a less-qualified applicant and restrict that person's duties to the situations that person's skills are suited for?

For example, a (specific individual) woman wants to be a police officer, but she can not meet the physical requirements of the job;  however, recent retirements have left the department short of the quota of women officers that the city requires:
Is it fair to the applicant, to the city, and the to department to hire her and train her, but limit her duties to interviews and victim counseling?


A British police administrator once said: "Given the nature of police work, its no shame to find corruption within the service; the shame is not doing anything about it" (Haberfeld, 2012 p. 19).


Haberfeld, M. R. (2012). Police leadership: Organizational and managerial decision making process (2nd. Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Sunday, May 10, 2015

The Value of Experience over Training in Criminal Justice Management

MCJ6405: Organizational Leadership

Week 5
Assignment 4
The Value of Experience over Training in Criminal Justice Management

Problem Statement

The ability to think strategically cannot be taught in a classroom or through formal training; it only comes with experience on the job.

Which one of the two is more important in a leadership position-experience or training? Why?

Experience will trump training as a leadership component value in most cases; however, the two qualities each have valuable contributions, and should reinforce other; “leadership can be learned in formal academic settings, they also believe that it is imperative that the knowledge and skills gained need reinforcement within the workplace” (Carmenaty, 2013, p. 21). One one side of a values comparison, “One could argue that most degree-seeking majors are unaware of law enforcement
realities, and are therefore unqualified to espouse valid assessments” (Carlan, 2007, p. 61), and yet, studies indicate that law enforcement officers that have attained higher levels of education beyond a high school diploma were more versatile within their environment” (Carmenaty, 2013, p. 61). By understanding that these qualities can complement each other, criminal justice leaders can use strategies that synthesize the qualities in creating future leaders, as this discussion will review shortly.

Do you believe experience is more valuable in a criminal justice leadership position than in the corresponding positions in other fields? Why? Examine with reference to the fact that the detailed field knowledge gained on-the-job cannot be collated and condensed into the most comprehensive of the training programs.

Experience is even more valuable a quality in the criminal justice field than in other professions due to the high stakes involved in resolving issues; people die, officers go to jail, taxpayers pay the brunt of lawsuits . Examination of the balance between leadership and experience has been sparse; “Literature on leadership in policing has, with a few notable exceptions, focused on either the possible application of general organizational and leadership theories within policing contexts...Less has been done to examine leadership within the cultural and occupational contexts of policing” (Schafer, 2009, p.240). However, many of those that work in the profession, as opposed to the academics that study it, have chimed in conclusively; “From the perspective of craft, professionalism is defined quite differently. Experience,
not scientific knowledge, is the foundation of effective police work. By encountering a variety
of situations and people over time, patrol officers learn valuable, practical knowledge and develop specific skills” (Willis, 2013, p.3). Perhaps a field sergeant can summarize the comparison:

Administrators looking at people's paper accomplishments vs what they have been doing in
the fieeld. The guy who has avoided getting dirty and punched his ticket vs the guy who is in
the mud puddle getting the job done. Administrators tend to focus on the firrst group rather
than the second or a combo of the two […] we have diminished the quality of our leaders.
We promote those who can take a good test or build a paper empire but have little “real”
experience in the fieeld. (Schafer, 2009, p.248)

Do you think that a leader who has been trained in the latest management techniques will have less tension with more experienced subordinates? Why? Conversely, how can an experienced leader manage subordinates who possess more qualifications?

The perspective of the field sergeant quoted above shows the level of tension that can arise when those that “learn” management techniques are set above those that learn in the field. “From the inception of academic criminal justice, law enforcement personnel (administrators and officers) have espoused skepticism toward the practical value of a college education” (Carlan, 2007, p. 609). This skepticism extends to management training, and there are reasons for it. Schafer references McCall and Hollenbeck in this statement; “Despite 'an unending flow of books, videotapes, and leadership gurus, despite leadership development that costs millions of dollars each year' there is still an absence of true and effective leadership in most organizations( 2009, p.242). Paterson discusses research in the 1990's which indicated that LEO's were asking “questions about the value of higher education beyond the legitimacy and credibility provided to the police by accreditation (2011, p. 289). On the other hand, some
officers with higher education [felt] that they have an advantage over officers with no or only a partial college education ‘in some practices such as accepting responsibility, undertaking leadership roles and initiative” (del Carmen, Butler, & Odo, 2006, 213). Eastman and McCain support those officers' position; “It is difficult for an intellectually inferior officer to successfully supervise a subordinate who is more intelligent than he by virtue of a four-year liberal arts education” (Eastman & McCain, 1973, p. 114). However, there is an assumption that formal education in itself is a sign of intellectual superiority. “Bayley observes that ‘in several respects universities, American ones at least, maybe even less rational than the police, despite their pretensions to intellectual superiority, rationality, and selfless service.’ This is extremely ironic, since academics have been in the forefront in criticizing police organizations as ‘rigid, unreflective, ineffective, wasteful, unaccountable, bureaucratized, self-serving, and hide-bound.’
The paper can be taken as a word of caution for those police and reformers who might idealistically believe that higher education has all the answers for the problems of the police. (Cordner & Shain, 2011, p. 283)

In the volatile environment of criminal justice, what are the problems that the leader might face if he relies too much on either of these:
  • Experience
  • Training
Provide in-depth reasoning as you consider both situations and support your response with examples.

Despite the criticism of formal credentials in the preceding discussion, it should not be inferred that training and education have no value. To repeat, utilizing leadership training in conjunction with experience is the best way of developing leaders. Because experience matters most, it should be a priority in the process; “Once officers gain employment experience, they should be capable of
judging educational value” (Carlan, 2007, p. 616). Schafer recognizes this in his research; “Respondents recognized the value in teaching fundamentals and theories of
leadership, but felt this learning would be enhanced through the guided application” (2009, p. 247). A criminal justice leader that relies on experience only may neglect to internalize some fundamental concepts of either the criminal justice task or of simple leadership principles; “the fair and
equitable application of criminal justice plays an integral part of a liberal education” (Kingshott, Hughes, Mullendore, & Prinsloo, 2008, p.65). A leader that fails to utilize either value to advance skills simply won't succeed; “In an environment that is as unpredictable and volatile as in law enforcement,
leader’s that fail to develop eventually become victims of their own demise...” (Carmenaty, 2013 p. 35).

How can leaders in criminal justice develop the skills in areas in which they have a deficit? What are the organizational conditions which can facilitate this leadership training? Explain the techniques and theories that can be adopted.

The first thing that a criminal justice leader must do to develop his leadership skills is to make the personal commitment to do so; “mastering the environmental context is simply an act
of choice and willingness to interact in a manner that requires intimate and engaging
relationships with self and others” (Carmenaty, 2013 p. 19). These leaders need to take advantage of training opportunities provided by their agencies; “Successful organizations typically provide leadership development programs to enhance the skills of their employees, supervisors, and managers” (Moriarty, 2104, para. 7). This is fairly common;”A number of states also operate “command colleges”
intended to further the leadership and management development of participating
officers” (Schafer, 2009, p.241). For those leaders without such resources to draw upon, they need to locate and act upon such opportunities they can secure themselves, lest they “ eventually become victims of their own demise”.


Carlan, P. E. (2007). The criminal justice degree and policing: Conceptual development or occupational primer? Policing, 30(4), 608-619. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13639510710833893

Carmenaty, D. (2013). Examining the relationship between the effects of formal education and the police manager’s leadership style through the full range leadership dimensions (Ph.D.). Our Lady of the Lake University, United States -- Texas. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/1321226042/abstract?accountid=87314

Cordner, G., & Shain, C. (2011). The changing landscape of police education and training. Police Practice & Research, 12(4), 281–285. doi:10.1080/15614263.2011.587673

Del Carmen, A., Butler, R. R., & Odo, J. C. (2006). Criminology and Criminal Justice through the Lenses of the Law Enforcement Community: An Attitudinal Assessment. Criminal Justice Studies, 19(2), 209–222. doi:10.1080/14786010600764583

Eastman, G. D., & McCain, J. A. (1973). Police managers and their perceptions of higher
education. Journal of Criminal Justice, 1 , 113-124

Kingshott, B. F., Hughes, F., Mullendore, K., & Prinsloo, J. (2008). A leadership approach to criminal justice education: developing tomorrow’s decision makers. Criminal Justice Studies, 21(1), 61–77. doi:10.1080/14786010801972712

Moriarty, S. (2014, December). The Leadership in Police Organizations Program in the Delaware State Police: Recommendations for law enforcement leadership development. The Police Chief. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=1792&issue_id=52009

Paterson, C. (2011). Adding value? A review of the international literature on the role of higher education in police training and education. Police Practice & Research, 12(4), 286–297. doi:10.1080/15614263.2011.563969

Schafer, J. A. (2009). Developing effective leadership in policing: perils, pitfalls, and paths forward. Policing, 32(2), 238–260. doi:http://dx.doi.org.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/10.1108/13639510910958163

Willis, J. J. (2013). Improving police: What’s  craft got to do with it? Ideas in American Policing, 16. Retrieved August 10, 2014 from https://www.policefoundation.org/sites/g/files/g798246/f/201306/IAP16_Willis_2.pdf

Saturday, May 9, 2015

Organizational change; Organizational teams

  • There are different stages of subordinates' responses in reaction to change in an organization. How do you think an effective leader should deal with each of these different stages?
    Yukl states that there are four stages of typical reaction to sudden change; “The reaction pattern has four stages: denial, anger, mourning, and adaptation” (2012, p.80). It is important to note that this pattern is similar to grief patterns, and that there are several additional reasons for employee resistance to change that Yukl also lists; “Proposed Change Is Not Necessary”, “Proposed Change Is Not Feasible”, “Change Is Not Cost Effective”, “Change Would Cause Personal Losses”, “Proposed Change Is Inconsistent With Values”, and “Leaders Not Trusted”(2012, pp. 81,82). A leader should recognize the source of resistance before attempting to use a “grief” specific approach; to help “overcome denial, channel their anger constructively, mourn without becoming severely depressed, and have optimism about adjusting successfully”(Yukl, 2012, p.80).
  • What are the three main differences in the primary and secondary ways in which a leader can influence organizational culture? Please provide reasons for your choice.
    Schein establishes a categorization of cultural change mechanisms: the primary mechanisms are attention, reactions to crisis, role modeling, allocations of rewards, and criterion for selection or dismissal within the organization. The secondary mechanisms are design of organizational structure, design of systems and procedures, design of facilities, “stories, legends and myths”, and formal statements (Zarafshan, n.d). The first difference is that primary mechanism can be described as “Embedding Mechanisms” while secondary mechanisms can be described as “Reinforcing mechanisms” (Nellen, 1997, para. 30). A secondary differences is that the primary mechanisms operate on a personal or dyadic basis, while secondary mechanisms work on a group level. Nellen differentiates between the mechanisms:”Primary mechanisms used to embed in ongoing manner. Secondary more subtle, more ambiguous, more difficult to control, yet can be powerful reinforcements of primary”. Nellen also asserts that secondary mechanisms are used to culturize “newcomers” (1997, para. 44).
  • How can a leader in a criminal-justice agency develop a vision for change? Formulate brief guidelines for developing a vision and implementing that change.
    A criminal justice leader must, before any other consideration, remember the parameters of law that they operate under. Secondly, they must offer a realistic vision considering the resources they are allocated. A leader must scan and analyze not just the most pressing needs of the community but anticipate likely problems of the future. Taking all those factors into consideration, the leader must consider the capabilities and needs of the people in his organization. To complete his vision, he must bring all these elements in balance while providing for mechanisms of adaptation. Finally, the leader must be able to communicate his vision clearly to the stakeholders and to the organization.
  • Criminal-justice agencies follow procedures rigidly. How can you turn these agencies into organizations that adapt and learn in a dynamic environment so that they can perform with greater efficiency?
    I return to the consideration that criminal justice agencies are bound by law; due to this, they are less adaptable to fluid organizational changes. Other factors that inhibit CJ agencies from rapid change are a lack of resources (not only to do their day to day function, but to plan and implement change) and political influence on the agency's operations. Finally, criminal justice agencies are staffed by conservative cultures; this isn't in reference to the political label of culture, but rather to the stakes on the table when these organizations make mistakes – people die, officers go to jail, taxpayers pay the brunt of lawsuits. Since these stakes are high, CJ personnel are resistant to change that isn't “proven”.
    To counter these issues, CJ leaders that wish to implement change must themselves be adaptable to using a wide array of leadership techniques and to forging personal relationships amongst all stakeholder groups as well.
Analyze and compare the following pairs of factors that are sources of subordinates' resistance to change in an organization. Isolate the factors that you consider the most important:
  • Beliefs about necessity and feasibility of change – followers will feasibility of change over necessity; there is no point in making a change if the change will not correct the issue.
  • Economic threats and loss of power – for most followers, economic threats will trump loss of power. Children tend to cry and make lots of noise when they are starving. However, a certain percentage of people will prefer to advance themselves at any cost.
  • Resentment and threats to values – threats to values pose a major threat to the morale of followers, and this consideration is probably the strongest factor to employee resistance after economic threat.

Nellen, T. (1997). Organizational Culture & Leadership. Tnellen.com. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from http://www.tnellen.com/ted/tc/schein.html

Zarafshan, A. (n.d.). Schein's leadership culture-change actions. Changing Minds. Retrieved December 2, 2012 from http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/actions/schein_culture.htm

Yukl, G. A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations, 8th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from http://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/books/9781256650225

How do the leadership requirements, structures, and functioning of the following types of teams differ from each other?
  • Self-managed and functional teams
  • Cross-functional and virtual teams
In self-managed teams, decision-making authority concerning specific means of accomplishing the team's work is left up to the individuals who compose the team” (Erez, Lepine, & Elms, 2002, p. 929. Such teams may or may not have an external leader; “In such teams an external leader may be accountable for the team’s performance, but often does not get involved in the operational activities and day-to-day decision making of the team” (Carte, Chidambaram, & Becker, 2006, p. 324).
In contrast, “In a functional operating team, the members are likely to have jobs that are somewhat specialized but still part of the same basic function ...There is usually an appointed leader who has considerable authority for internal operations and managing external relationships with other parts of the organization” (Yukl, 2012, p.254).
Virtual teams are similar in operation to self-managed teams; “a collection of individuals who are dispersed (geographically, organizationally, or otherwise), and who collaborate using information technology in order to accomplish a specific goal” (Carte, Chidambaram, & Becker, 2006, p. 324). Carte et al further describe leadership roles in such teams; Recent work on virtual teams suggests that leadership, in this electronic context, might be better viewed as a collective effort distributed among team members characterized by the sharing and rotating of leadership roles” (2006, p. 323)
Cross-functional teams have a similar goal formation purpose to virtual teams, in that they “often draw their members from across disciplines, professions, and functional units, so that their expertise can be applied” (Slepian, 2013, p. 1350005-3), and are limited to a specific goal.
Finally, although teams can play important parts in a leader's arsenal, we need to remember that “teamwork is not a virtue in itself. It is merely a strategic choice” (Lencioni, 2003, p.35).
In the criminal justice organizational environment, discuss whether collective efficacy of the group and mutual trust in the team are more important than individual skills while determining team performance. Support your response with suitable examples.
  • Discuss whether collective efficacy of the group and mutual trust in the team are more important than individual skills while determining team performance. Support your response with suitable examples.
  • Does role clarity for each team member influence his or her cooperation and coordination within the team? How? What possible hurdles might be encountered if there are overlapping roles or confusion about individual roles?
  • Which are the three most important determinants of group processes that affect decision making in groups within criminal justice agencies? Provide a rationale and examples for your choices.
The issue of whether trust between members of a team is more important than skill depends on variables such as levels of trust and skill. If a team member can not conduct a job function, then there is no reason to trust him to begin with. However, if a team member has great skills, but has not built the trust amongst his team to assign him the task, his skill is likewise of no use. If the collective efficiency of the team and mutual trust within the team are great enough, however, then that would be more important than the individual skills of a single team member.

The understanding of one's role on a team not only influences his cooperation and coordination on a team, it determines those effects. The larger the team, or the scope of the operation, the more affect this role clarity has. On a small scale, if a policeman fails to clear a room that is his responsibility properly, he is placing other members of his team in danger. If he doesn't get his paperwork completed in due time, he may fail to provide the legal support another policeman may need in the courtroom. On a larger scale, such as in a task force, a role member may take an action that subverts the entire enterprise; a local policeman may arrest an informant that was supposed to clear the crime scene. In these cases, the team member that does not understand the responsibilities of his assigned role puts the task goal at risk of failure. Overlapping roles, such as jurisdictional conflicts or multi-agency task forces in which role responsibilities aren't mapped out, also interfere with role clarity, team coordination, and team cooperation in the same manner.

Yukl states that there are many factors that can have negative effects on group processes that affect decision making. These factors include such things as “contribution of information and ideas by group members, the clarity of communication, the accuracy of prediction and judgments, the extent to which the discussion is focused on the problem, and the manner in which disagreement is resolved. Common process problems that reduce decision quality include member inhibition, groupthink, false consensus, hasty decisions, polarization, and lack of action planning for implementation”(2012, p. 267). The three most important of these factors would be quality of information, lack of action planning, and groupthink. One of the greatest failures of LE decision-making can be seen in the Koresh/Waco confrontation. The decision to send agents up to the front door, only carrying pistols, for a PR op instead of a safe arrest had the consequence of a siege and a litter of dead bodies. The group decision-making lacked the information that the cultists were well armed and preparing for a “final battle” (Edwards, 2001, p. 347), or perhaps ignored it due to groupthink. The lack of action planning can be seen in the confused response; did NONE of the planners anticipate armed resistance? Edwards contends that the planners of the operation suffered “organizational surprise” and refused “expert advice”(2001). It would seem that the determinants of successful group decision processing is avoiding such pitfalls.

Carte, T. A., Chidambaram, L., & Becker, A. (2006). Emergent leadership in self-managed virtual teams. Group Decision and Negotiation, 15(4), 323-343. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10726-006-9045-7
Edwards, J. C. (2001). Self-fulfilling prophecy and escalating commitment. fuel for the waco fire. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 37(3), 343-360. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886301373006
Erez, A., Lepine, J. A., & Elms, H. (2002). Effects of rotated leadership and peer evaluation on the functioning and effectiveness of self-managed teams: A quasi-experiment. Personnel Psychology, 55(4), 929-948. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220141772?accountid=87314
Lencioni, P. M. (2003). The trouble with teamwork. Leader to Leader, 2003(29), 35. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/218311851?accountid=87314
Slepian, J. L. (2013). Cross-functional teams and organizational learning: A model and cases from telecommunications operating companies. International Journal Of Innovation & Technology Management, 10(1), -1. doi:10.1142/S0219877013500053
Yukl, G. A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations, 8th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/books/9781256650225

Friday, May 8, 2015

Charismatic Leadership in Law Enforcement and the Military

Charismatic Leadership in Law Enforcement and the Military
One may suppose that charismatic leadership is more effective then other forms of leadership. Indeed, the word charisma is connotative that someone who has it has the respect and admiration of those around him. Yukl defines charismatic leadership in terms of “follower perceptions that the leader is endowed with exceptional qualities” (2012, p. 310). However, those that study leadership, particularly those that understand that effective leadership depends on adapting to the situation, can tell you that charismatic leadership can be, but is not always, more effective then other forms of leadership. There are several drawbacks to charismatic leadership that can hinder effective operations of an organization. One common theme amongst these hindrances is that good suggestions and effective criticism of operations is curtailed by “awe” of the leader. Another theme is that overconfidence in the leader can lead to delusions of infallibility and denial of failure. A third theme developed through these hindrances is the failure to create successive leadership (Yukl, 2012, p. 319). Charismatic leaders are also susceptible to narcissism and it's flaws such as “arrogance, self-absorption, entitlement, fragile self-esteem, and hostility”(Rosenthal & Pittinsky, 2006, abstract). Finally, charismatic leaders often gain leadership status by promising to deliver a “vision” to followers, but often deliver empty dreams while misusing their power (Yukl, 2012, p. 321).
Due to these flaws, charismatic leaders are very often detrimental to the organizations they lead; history has seen Hitler take Germany to a bombed out wreck, Castro lead Cuba to a state in which major portions of the workforce are comprised of being “neighborhood snitches” for men and prostitution for women, and finally, Obama drag the Democrat party to historical losses in Congress. A major cause for this ineffective leadership ties in with a failure to develop successive leadership. There are just not quality followers amongst those whose leadership is based on charisma alone; “Followers who lack a clear self-identity and are confused and anxious about their lives are more attracted to a strong leader with a personalized power orientation who can provide a clear social identity for them as disciples or loyal supporters” (Yukl, 2012, p. 318). Can charismatic leaders improve their overall leadership skills? The good news is that leadership skills are trainable; “some people are born with propensities towards charisma (i.e . extraversion, emotional expressiveness) there is also a strong social skill component that can be developed with training” (Nodarse, 2009, p. 105).
How does this tie in with military and law enforcement leadership? We will examine three leaders in these fields and see whether or not charismatic leadership can wholly be used to describe their leadership patterns. There are other leadership styles which can also be used to describe these leaders' patterns; “conceptual ambiguity and inconsistent definitions make it difficult to compare transformational and charismatic leadership”(Yukl, 2012, p. 329).
J. Edgar Hoover led the FBI from a understaffed, backbench agency stuffed with “hacks and “misfits”( Gentry, 1991, p.29) to one of the most respected law enforcement agencies in the world. Although Hoover possessed some traits that Yukl associates with charismatic leadership, such as “novel vision” and “self-sacrifice”(2012, p.311), Hoover's leadership style should be looked at more in terms of transformational leadership. Yukl contends that “transforming leadership appeals to the moral values of followers in an attempt to raise their consciousness about ethical issues and to mobilize their energy and resources to reform institutions (2012, p.321). Even so, transformational leadership can not be used to fully describe Hoover's style, either. Hoover lacked what Yukl lists as a characteristic of transformational leadership; “Express confidence in followers” (2012, p. 332). Although Hoover selected agents for education and appearance, his trust in them to do the job did not extend fully to decision-making responsibilities.
A law enforcement leader who can be described in both terms of charismatic or transformational leadership is August Vollmer. Vollmer got his start in law enforcement with a local act of heroism that resulted in his election as a City Marshal. Such acts of heroism are readily accepted as characteristics of “exceptional quality”. Even so, Vollmer demonstrated other leadership qualities and skills that led to the reform of American law enforcement, in particular the education of policemen. In Vollmer's words, "The policeman's job is the highest calling in the world. The men who do that job should be the finest men. They should be the best educated”(Bennett, 2010, para. 5). In contrast to Hoover, Vollmer did show “express confidence in followers” by hosting “Friday crab club” meetings (Kelling & Wycoff, 2001, p.2) for the purposes of consulting with his officers.
George Patton demonstrates an example of charismatic leadership within the military, but charismatic leadership that was based on other factors such as competence. Like Vollmer, Patton displayed the “exceptional quality” of heroism early in his career by conducting “daring raids on the enemy” (South University Online, 2014, para. 1) during the Mexican incursion in pursuit of Pancho Villa. Patton displayed several traits associated with charismatic leadership such as, especially with the trait of unconventional behavior (Yukl, 2012, p. 312). Yet Patton was not ultimately a failure as many charismatic leaders are; he held “expertise” in his profession, and had the trait of integrity. However, Patton may not be a suitable role model for law enforcement purposes. Patton, as a strict disciplinarian, would run into conflict with police union organizations. Policemen are not soldiers (even if they serve the common goal of protecting the country and it's people). In addition, there are multiple stakeholders in police operations, while military commanders typically have less such interference, and usually have the Executive branch as a partial buffer between political acts and duty.
One could make the argument that any type of charismatic leadership is not suitable for law enforcement organizations, considering the risk of overconfident failure and narcissistic denial of such failure. However, contingency theory, in particular, the LPC Contingency Model, stresses that effective leadership is based upon dealing with a situation on the merits of that specific situation and the variables that make it different from other situations; there is no one-size-fits-all perfect model of leadership. If a confident, competent, ethical leader inspires awe in his men, and uses that awe for more effective use of inspirational appeal, personal appeal, or Ingratiation approaches to get the job done, then that is correct for that situation. It must be stressed that other qualities of leadership such as competence and integrity are present in the leader. In law enforcement, operations must be carried out within the parameters of law, regulation, and policy that are subject to public accountability. Dur to this consideration of the LPC model, it should not be contended that any one style of leadership is “best” for law enforcement...or for any other endeavor.


Bennett, C. (2010, May 27). Legendary lawman August Vollmer. Officer.com. Retrieved November 15, 2014 from http://www.officer.com/article/10232661/legendary-lawman-august-vollmer

Gentry, C. (1991). J. Edgar Hoover: The man and his secrets. New York. W W Norton & Company
Kelling, G. And Wycoff, M. (2001). Evolving strategy of policing: Case studies of
strategic change. Department of Justice. Retrieved November 15, 2014 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/198029.pdf

Nodarse, B. C. (2009). A nonverbal approach to charismatic leadership training (Order No. 3384925). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304850609). Retrieved November 30, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304850609?accountid=87314
Rosenthal, S. A., & Pittinsky, T. L. (2006). Narcissistic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 617–633. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.10.005

South University Online. (2014). MCJ6405 :Organizational Leadership: Case Study—General George S. Patton (2 of 5). Retrieved November 30, 2014 from myeclassonline.com

Yukl, G. A. (2012). Leadership in Organizations, 8th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from http://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/books/9781256650225