As with any other method we have discussed dealing with leadership, the selection of a particular tactic should be a situational decision. In this case, we have two senior and valued members of our staff and instrumental compliance processes would not be the best first approach to use. So we would need to make a personality judgement on each to determine which proactive influence tactics would be appropriate for that person. If these influence tactics did not work, we might ultimately have to resort to authority, as “a leader’s authority usually includes the right to make particular types of decisions for the organization.” (Yukl, 2012, p. 186).
Should you use rational persuasion or the tactic of exchange strategy to influence the attorneys you selected for creating and maintaining the new database? Why? Explain how you might combine both, if necessary, to achieve the desired objective.
Leaders should consider feedback from employees whenever possible, especially in regards to assignments; however, the leader shouldn't allow himself to be influenced by the same kinds of tactics we are discussing if it inhibits the organization from reaching it's goals. Perhaps an employee can not do (as opposed to doesn't want to) a certain task, or needs additional support to do it. It is counter-productive for a leader to continue to use influence at the point where such attempts would cause the organization to suffer negative consequences; suppose I had used pressure tactics on one of my senior attorneys to complete this task...and he decided to move on to a new job opportunity.
Which combination of the various proactive influence tactics would be most successful in influencing the staff? Why?
Although I return to the point of needing to be flexible in using tools depending on the situation, on an otherwise neutral basis I would use the rational appeal process to influence these attorneys to complete the assignment. As senior and capable staff members, I would assume that their support for the office's goals are the same as mine. If necessary, I could also reward them with interesting assignments on an exchange basis for completing the task (personally, I don't like this tactic...I don't mind rewarding staff for doing a good job on a general basis, but I think the idea of a quid pro quo on a daily basis undermines my authority.
Because “skills” and “traits” are different concepts, defining common characteristics is difficult. Conceptual skills share some characteristics with intelectance. In addition, certain skills can replicate the results of traits; “Interpersonal” skills can be used to get the same results that surgency or agreeableness can. For example, a leader using the interpersonal skill of a personal appeal can attain the same result an affectionate leader can. Making a detailed analysis of whether a skill or a trait is the cause of a specific leadership action is made even more difficult by the idea that people with strong traits can make better uses of skills that suit those traits. On the other hand, a person with a strong trait may lack the skill to perform a leadership action effectively. An overconfident, surgent leader may use the wrong influence tactic and cause a lack of trust or respect in an employee. “Extraversion correlated significantly with confidence, but not with accuracy. This led to a significant correlation with overconfidence”(Schaefer, Williams, Goodie, & Campbell, 2004, p.477)
Due to these considerations, it is not clear that either model is better suited to describe leadership in general terms then the other. However, in any specific leadership situation, one model may describe that leaders' actions better then the other.
How are the specific traits related to leadership effectiveness? Can they be categorized according to the big five model? If yes, how? If no, why?
He “maintained a positive relationship with the inmate population” as a demonstratration of Agreeableness.
His focus on “importance of order and discipline” is an example of Conscientiousness.
The transition in his career from education to correction shows Adjustment.
Reforms that he initiated in the prison system demonstrates his Intellectance.
The impression that he made on State leadership that led to his appointment as well as his popularity with the inmates are Interpersonal Skills, although it could be argued that this was based on Agreeableness.
The reforms he created, the organization, and the new revenue flows all show his ability at Conceptual Skills.(South University Online, 2014)
Farkas, G. (2003). Cognitive skills and noncognitive traits and behaviors in stratification processes. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 541-562. Retrieved November 19, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/199588119?accountid=87314