- There are different stages of subordinates' responses in
reaction to change in an organization. How do you think an effective
leader should deal with each of these different stages?
Yukl states that there are four stages of typical reaction to sudden change; “The reaction pattern has four stages: denial, anger, mourning, and adaptation” (2012, p.80). It is important to note that this pattern is similar to grief patterns, and that there are several additional reasons for employee resistance to change that Yukl also lists; “Proposed Change Is Not Necessary”, “Proposed Change Is Not Feasible”, “Change Is Not Cost Effective”, “Change Would Cause Personal Losses”, “Proposed Change Is Inconsistent With Values”, and “Leaders Not Trusted”(2012, pp. 81,82). A leader should recognize the source of resistance before attempting to use a “grief” specific approach; to help “overcome denial, channel their anger constructively, mourn without becoming severely depressed, and have optimism about adjusting successfully”(Yukl, 2012, p.80).
- What are the three main differences in the primary and
secondary ways in which a leader can influence organizational
culture? Please provide reasons for your choice.
Schein establishes a categorization of cultural change mechanisms: the primary mechanisms are attention, reactions to crisis, role modeling, allocations of rewards, and criterion for selection or dismissal within the organization. The secondary mechanisms are design of organizational structure, design of systems and procedures, design of facilities, “stories, legends and myths”, and formal statements (Zarafshan, n.d). The first difference is that primary mechanism can be described as “Embedding Mechanisms” while secondary mechanisms can be described as “Reinforcing mechanisms” (Nellen, 1997, para. 30). A secondary differences is that the primary mechanisms operate on a personal or dyadic basis, while secondary mechanisms work on a group level. Nellen differentiates between the mechanisms:”Primary mechanisms used to embed in ongoing manner. Secondary more subtle, more ambiguous, more difficult to control, yet can be powerful reinforcements of primary”. Nellen also asserts that secondary mechanisms are used to culturize “newcomers” (1997, para. 44).
- How can a leader in a criminal-justice agency develop a
vision for change? Formulate brief guidelines for developing a
vision and implementing that change.
A criminal justice leader must, before any other consideration, remember the parameters of law that they operate under. Secondly, they must offer a realistic vision considering the resources they are allocated. A leader must scan and analyze not just the most pressing needs of the community but anticipate likely problems of the future. Taking all those factors into consideration, the leader must consider the capabilities and needs of the people in his organization. To complete his vision, he must bring all these elements in balance while providing for mechanisms of adaptation. Finally, the leader must be able to communicate his vision clearly to the stakeholders and to the organization.
- Criminal-justice agencies follow procedures rigidly. How can
you turn these agencies into organizations that adapt and learn in a
dynamic environment so that they can perform with greater
I return to the consideration that criminal justice agencies are bound by law; due to this, they are less adaptable to fluid organizational changes. Other factors that inhibit CJ agencies from rapid change are a lack of resources (not only to do their day to day function, but to plan and implement change) and political influence on the agency's operations. Finally, criminal justice agencies are staffed by conservative cultures; this isn't in reference to the political label of culture, but rather to the stakes on the table when these organizations make mistakes – people die, officers go to jail, taxpayers pay the brunt of lawsuits. Since these stakes are high, CJ personnel are resistant to change that isn't “proven”.
To counter these issues, CJ leaders that wish to implement change must themselves be adaptable to using a wide array of leadership techniques and to forging personal relationships amongst all stakeholder groups as well.
- Beliefs about necessity and feasibility of change – followers will feasibility of change over necessity; there is no point in making a change if the change will not correct the issue.
- Economic threats and loss of power – for most followers, economic threats will trump loss of power. Children tend to cry and make lots of noise when they are starving. However, a certain percentage of people will prefer to advance themselves at any cost.
- Resentment and threats to values – threats to values pose a
major threat to the morale of followers, and this consideration is
probably the strongest factor to employee resistance after economic
and functional teams
and virtual teams
Cross-functional teams have a similar goal formation purpose to virtual teams, in that they “often draw their members from across disciplines, professions, and functional units, so that their expertise can be applied” (Slepian, 2013, p. 1350005-3), and are limited to a specific goal.
Finally, although teams can play important parts in a leader's arsenal, we need to remember that “teamwork is not a virtue in itself. It is merely a strategic choice” (Lencioni, 2003, p.35).
In the criminal justice organizational environment, discuss whether collective efficacy of the group and mutual trust in the team are more important than individual skills while determining team performance. Support your response with suitable examples.
whether collective efficacy of the group and mutual trust in the
team are more important than individual skills while determining
team performance. Support your response with suitable examples.
- Does role clarity for each team member influence his or
her cooperation and coordination within the team? How? What possible
hurdles might be encountered if there are overlapping roles or
confusion about individual roles?
- Which are the three most important determinants of group
processes that affect decision making in groups within criminal
justice agencies? Provide a rationale and examples for your choices.
Edwards, J. C. (2001). Self-fulfilling prophecy and escalating commitment. fuel for the waco fire. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 37(3), 343-360. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886301373006
Erez, A., Lepine, J. A., & Elms, H. (2002). Effects of rotated leadership and peer evaluation on the functioning and effectiveness of self-managed teams: A quasi-experiment. Personnel Psychology, 55(4), 929-948. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220141772?accountid=87314
Lencioni, P. M. (2003). The trouble with teamwork. Leader to Leader, 2003(29), 35. Retrieved December 3, 2014 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/218311851?accountid=87314
Slepian, J. L. (2013). Cross-functional teams and organizational learning: A model and cases from telecommunications operating companies. International Journal Of Innovation & Technology Management, 10(1), -1. doi:10.1142/S0219877013500053