The major issue is the necessity that security agencies operate with the understanding that national security must be balanced with citizen liberty. Jim Sensenbrenner,the author of the PATRIOT Act , had this to say how the Act has been implemented, “I stand by the Patriot Act and support the specific targeting of terrorists by our government, but the proper balance has not been struck between civil rights and American security” (Kravets, 2013, para. 3).
This is an issue that confronts the security community at every level of responsibility (the intelligence community, law enforcement, the military). Horwitz argues that the Constitution is a "meta-rule of construction" dedicated to "national self-preservation", he stresses the importance of the Presidential Oath as dedicated to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution (2009, pp. 1069-1070). In America this oath is adhered to at the line level throughout the nation; DeShon contends that a “police officer's oath originates within the United States Constitution” (2000, p. 6) and Amerson et al reiterate this at the level of sheriff; “ a sheriff should always perform his or her duties in accordance with the Constitution of the United States” (n.d., p.2). They key to the oath is "national self-preservation". To protect the citizens of this country, security personnel must be aware of political interference, and be prepared to counter it. National security should not be allowed to be suborned by political pandering. Note that the oath is to the Constitution, not to a grandstanding politician, not to any given law that is unconstitutional, and especially not to any law that threatens national security.
Nakashima, E. (2015, June 12). Chinese hack of federal personnel files included security-clearance database. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 8, 2015 from
I added the IACP study to my library; thank you for the link. Unfortunately, the study of use of force can be subject to political pressures. You may want to check out http://www.aele.org/ (Americans for Effective Law Enforcement) for more information regarding use of force and legal standards. Look at their Monthly Law Journal archives.
As for time to research, I hope the following article can help you:
If there is one thing this degree plan has taught me, it's the spelling of bureaucracy. I had been very content to spell it as "burro-cracy" previously.