- Social disorganization and social control theories are both
considered positivist theories of crime. Why do you think this is
so? How are the ideas of these theories different from those of
classical school theorists?
- In their article "Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas,"
Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay hold “too much focus upon the
individual delinquent” as the reason why our large cities have
undiminished queues of juvenile offenders. Do you agree with their
There are other criticisms of Shaw and McKay. “First of all, social disorganization as an explanation of delinquency downplays the significance of ethnic and cultural factors. ... In addition, the duplication of Shaw and McKay's work in different countries has usually supported their argument that delinquent rates are highest in areas with economic decline and instability. However, such research has not reproduced the findings of decreasing rates from the center of the city outward. In fact, in some countries the wealthy are often near the center of the city, while the poorer zones of the city are found near its fringes. Not to mention, Shaw and McKay's work does not address nondelinquency in delinquency areas. The large percentage of nondelinquents in delinquent areas should be addressed if this theory is to be considered a major explanation of delinquency. “ (Wong, 2011, para. 7)
- What five environmental stressors most impact crime in a
community and those who inhabit it? Why?
- Explain how your views surrounding the following have
- Causes of community decay.
- Strategies used in attempting to combat community decay.
- Complexities involved in community efforts to reverse cycle
of decay and crime.
- Approaches of macrolevel and microlevel theorists toward